Madhya Pradesh - History & Current Overview in Agriculture


Madhya Pradesh, famous as the Soybean State, has earned the highest award "Krishi Karman" given by the Government of India in the field of agriculture for six consecutive years.

Our State ranks 1st in country in the production of Soybean, Gram, Urad, Tur, Masoor, Linseed; 2nd in the production of Maize, Sesame, Ramtil, Moong and 3rd in the production of Wheat, Sorghum, Barley. In rabi season, wheat, gram, peas, lentils, mustard, sugarcane and linseed are sown in abundance.

Madhya Pradesh is the 2nd largest state in the country in area. Its geographical area is 307.56 lakh hectares, which is 9.38 per cent of the total area of the country. Out of the total geographical area 307.56 lakh hectares of the state, only about 151.91 lakh hectares are arable. Out of this, at present, in about 145 lakh hectares area, Kharif crops and in about 119 lakh hectares area, rabi crops are being taken up. The crop density of the state is 165.70 percent. The total irrigated area in the State is about 110.97 lakh hectares from government and private sources.

Madhya Pradesh ranked fifth in the country in terms of population. Agriculture and agriculture occupations in Madhya Pradesh are mainly the backbone of the state's economy. 3/4 population of the state, about 72 per cent of the population lives in rural areas. Out of these, 35 per cent of the population is under SC (15.6 per cent*) and ST (21.1 per cent*) who have very low holding stakes and are unable to take proper agricultural production due to various reasons. Including this, there are 27.15 per cent of the small farmers in the State with 1 to 2 hectares stake holding and 48.3 per cent of marginal farmers with a maximum of 1 hectare of land available.

Based on the diverse climate of the State, it is divided into 11 climatic zones and 5 crop areas. The soybean crop is the highest sowing crop in our State during the Kharif season, which is presently being sown in about 62 lakh hectares. Apart from this, our major crops in Kharif are soybean, paddy, maize, arhar, moong, urad, sorghum, millet, kodo, kutki, sesame, cotton etc. On the other hand, rabi has major crops like wheat, gram, peas, lentils, mustard, sugarcane, linseeds etc. Among them, wheat acreage is the highest. Due to the efforts made for wheat productivity, its area, production and productivity are also increasing rapidly. Apart from these, cotton and sugarcane crops are also our major cash crops.

Almost all the crops sown in the State have set high records in the field of production and productivity in the last one-and-a-half decades.

Minister of the Department of Farmers Welfare and Agricultural Development is Shri Kamal Patel. At the Government level, Agricultural Production Commissioner is Shri k.k Singh, Principal Secretary is Shri Ajit Kesari and Director is Smt. Preeti Maithil. The Directorate of department is located at Vindhyachal Bhawan, Bhopal. The field staff is appointed under the Joint Directors at the divisional level, Deputy Directors at the district level, Sud-Divisioanl Agriculture Officers (SDAO) at the sub division level and Senior Agriculture Development Officers (SADO) at Block Level, who have access to all the villages of the State.

In addition, the Directorate of Agricultural Engineering (Bhopal), M.P. State Agricultural Marketing (Mandi) Board (Bhopal), M.P. State Seed & Farm Development Corporation (Bhopal), M.P. State Seed Certification Agency (Bhopal), M.P. State Organic Certification Agency (Bhopal), Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University (JNKVV, Jabalpur) and Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Agricultural University (RVSKVV, Gwalior) and the State Institute of Agricultural Extension and Training, (SIAET, Barkhedikalan, Bhopal) are the allied departments through which the department executes inputs and supplies, Training, Mechanization and expansion related programs.

The responsibility of various units of the Department is to increase the production and productivity of agricultural crops in the State, land and water management, expansion of minor irrigation program and increase the income of farmers by taking developed agricultural techniques to the fields.

The most need for increasing the income of farmers is to reduce the cost of agriculture and increase production. The brief details of the major practices and functions being followed for this are as under-

1. Increase in paddy production by adopting Madagascar Technique.

2. Determination of fertilizer rate by soil testing.

3. By using the agriculture equipment through custom hiring or by purchasing on subsidy for from land preparation to all agricultural works.

4. To produce seeds of full requirement for the next year by sowing certified seeds of improved variety every year in 10% of the farm area.

5. Sowing the seeds prepared by seed treatment and organic manure.

6. By following the "Shri" method in paddy, "Ridge & Faro" or "Raised bed" method in soybean, "Dharwad Method" in Tur along with following the inter-cropping system is an easy way to achieve higher production by reducing the risk of crops.

7. Saving irrigation water and equally water distribution using innovative irrigation practices such as drip and sprinkler.

8. Use of pesticides prepared from indigenous and traditional manure and locally available materials under organic farming. By adopting the integrated pest and disease control measures.

9. Sale of products by obtaining highest price information on the basis of received information from e-marketing or other sources .

10. Setting up of alternative sources of income through cultivation as well as horticulture, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, sericulture etc.

11. To conserve products and earn more profit through their value addition by adopting food processing measures.